These materials are designed for parents and carers but you may find them helpful for discussion with colleagues and fellow practitioners.
Creating positive attitudes towards books
This resource is designed to highlight and promote reading for pleasure, distinguishing between how children learn to read and how they can be helped to become readers who choose to read for their own satisfaction. Inspiring children to love reading, to choose to read and to grow and develop into ardent and avid readers is perhaps the greatest gift any adult can pass on.
The 2014 National Curriculum for English in England emphasises ‘reading for pleasure’ – a move which is very welcome and long overdue. Recent studies (see, for example, Save the Children, 2014) have shown that those children who choose to read, enjoy reading and read regularly reap the benefits in many areas, not least:
In our multi-text driven society the ability to read and communicate in a variety of forms, not least through books, screens and other forms of technology is very important.
Put simply, in order to be able to read, children need to have a knowledge and awareness of our alphabet:
Of course, these skills can be taught explicitly and are developmental and progressive. Nonetheless there are, and will probably continue to be, many debates and arguments over which methods and strategies are ‘best’.
Being able to merely decode and know what words ‘say’ is pointless unless readers understand what they are reading and make sense of it. This, in turn, allows them to reflect upon and learn from their reading.
Learning to read starts long before a child opens a book and reads the words. Understanding what it means to read and how books work begins in infancy when sharing books and being read to: experiencing pages full of words and pictures by following a favourite story, a well-loved nursery rhyme or exciting pictures of tractors, scary dinosaurs, bold knights or cuddly kittens.
This important time introduces children to reading through sounds (directly related to written print), rhymes, patterns and rhythms of speech, intonation of voice, even gestures and facial expressions as they hear and share a favourite book (often repeated over and over again).
Many demands are made on children when they begin independently to tackle and decode the collection of printed squiggles on the pages. They may use one or more strategy at any given time or a mixture of methods throughout a book depending on the word, context or, indeed, their stage of reading development. For example:
Relating the story to the illustrations on the page is one of the first strategies children develop as they share or listen to a book.
Knowing the sounds that a letter (or groups of letters) represents allows a new reader to blend and ‘sound out’ words. Using a finger to follow each letter as the child blends the sounds together can be an aid to fluency (as well as repeating the whole word after each attempt).
Many children use their memory to recall whole words from one page (or even book) to another. Sight reading allows the child to become acquainted with the shape of a word by recognising the ascenders and descenders or overall shape of words. Some children may even memorise a whole story, asking to share the same book time and time again (an important aid to understanding and retention).
Realising what a book is about, understanding characters and knowing the subject or topic contained in a book are just some of the ways in which a child will be able to use contextual knowledge in order to tackle unfamiliar words. For example, when reading a book about dogs, and coming across a sentence such as: ‘A dog needs a walk often’, the word ‘walk’ may challenge an emerging reader. Encouraging the child
to read the sentence but leave out the tricky word will enable them to think about a word (beginning with the phoneme ‘w’) that might ‘sound right’. Cue some fun for the adult to suggest: ‘A dog needs a watering can often?’‘A dog needs a window often?’ while allowing the child to gain confidence and a sense of achievement by suggesting ‘walk’(or even ‘woof ’ or ‘whistle’; all of which can stimulate further talk about letter sounds as well as general needs of a dog).
Using the same sentence in the illustration above, a developing reader may recognise that a suggestion such as: ‘A dog needs a windy often’ wouldn’t be possible as it doesn’t make sense. Similarly, ‘A dog needs a walking often’can create valuable discussion concerning verbs, tenses and ‘sounding right’.
Readers with good sight and memory skills might also use analogy to recognise an unfamiliar word, rhyme or letter pattern. For example, having learnt the word ‘dog’, a child can be encouraged to compare the look and sound to log, frog and so on; likewise using the trigraph ‘igh’ to progress from reading ‘right’to ‘fright’, ‘frighten’and even ‘frightening’etc.
Through experiences of being read to, as well as developing their own reading skills, children learn that texts run from left to right and from the top to the bottom of a page (although other languages may, of course, differ). Likewise, hearing a reader’s voice change as they take into account various forms of punctuation allows a child to understand how language and grammar ‘work’ and the relationship between spoken and written words.
Some picture books challenge the reader to use a variety of skills in order to follow a text that may be written with the words giving a different message from the picture or with different typefaces and sizes of print across the page. (These features make the reading experience all the more enjoyable).
Once children begin to master the many skills of reading, gaining fluency and independence, the ability to understand and take meaning from texts broadens hugely. In other words, they progress from learning how to read to reading for learning (sometimes described as becoming an ‘effective’ reader). It is still, nevertheless, very important to continue reading to children as it enables them to access and experience texts that they may not necessarily choose themselves, for example, longer books that require high levels of concentration and stamina, those with complex sentences and a wider range of vocabulary etc. And, of course, reading to children can be a very pleasurable shared activity, whether it’s with brothers and sisters, aunts, uncles, grandparents…
If your family can read in a language other than English, it’s just as good to read to your child in that language. Experience in listening to stories and rhymes is great in any language and children cope very well with two (or more) languages.
Independent readers will continue to require support while their comprehension and understanding of texts develops. This can be achieved through: talking about texts and asking questions; encouraging children to make connections between the text and their own experiences; making links between newly-gained knowledge and previous learning; forming conclusions from texts; furthering their vocabulary. All of these help children to become effective readers.
At this important stage of a child’s reading development there may be a danger of encouraging extrinsic reasons for reading, such as being ‘allowed’ to move on to the next ‘level’ of books at school; being given a sticker and so forth. In these instances the messages being imparted to developing readers must be considered very carefully; although it may be pleasing to receive a sticker/reward, should children suppose this is why they are reading?
Guiding readers towards intrinsic reasons for reading by developing an understanding of why we read, what reading is ‘for’ and nurturing a love of reading has been recognised as far more valuable. If children want to pick up a book, comic or magazine, choose their own reading material and enjoy reading, they are far more likely to continue reading, become effective readers and gain from the countless ensuing benefits. Therefore access to quality texts – fiction, non-fiction and digital 6 texts – is crucial.
Children are individuals who necessarily progress, develop and grow in a myriad of ways. As they do, and whether consciously or otherwise, the wide-ranging life skills children gain from books of all types can never be underestimated. While reading independently, sharing a book or listening to someone read to them, children can:
and so on…
As well as being an enjoyable shared activity, reading to children and listening to them read, can provide the motivation to further their own reading whilst also exposing them to a wide variety of genres and texts they may not necessarily choose independently.
Whether a parent, carer, sibling or well-known personality, role models have the power to inspire children to read. If your child sees you (or other people they admire) enjoying a book, magazine or comic, laughing at the characters, hearing you enthuse about the story and valuing books, they will be inspired and more inclined to do the same themselves.
There are many initiatives available for schools, for example involving footballers, sports stars, authors and celebrities, that send strong messages to children that reading is a ‘good thing’ or ‘cool’. Ask your child’s teacher if there are any such projects in which you could become involved with your child, either within school or at home.
With such a rich and varied choice of children’s literature available (and in a variety of formats) knowing which texts to choose might seem a daunting task.
Choice of reading material is, of course, a personal matter. Many adults like to read something light and undemanding: entertaining as opposed to a heavy novel or ‘classic’ that requires concentration. Children deserve to be offered the same opportunities for choice when deciding what to read so, when selecting books, let your child choose as well. Studies have shown that children develop greater, intrinsic, motivation to read when they can choose their own reading matter. Whether from the school collection, your local library, a book shop, or a charity shop, take time together to look through, consider and choose books, or other materials, that they find inviting; and, most of all, interesting!
Be comfortable. Whether at bedtime, snuggled up on a comfy chair or even listening to a CD on a car journey, sharing books and reading together is one of the most important experiences children can have. Limit distractions to a minimum if possible; create a special reading area (a den or pop-up tent work wonders); allocate ten minutes in the day when everyone in the house stops and reads. Leave a variety of books lying around and accessible so they can be picked up at any time.
When reading to your child have fun (be brave) and use different voices for the characters. Use expressions and inflections in your voice to create suspense and excitement as you read. Vary the speed at which you read sentences and, if possible, always end on a cliff-hanger!
Talking and asking questions during and after reading is immensely valuable. Not only does discussion reveal a child’s understanding and interpretation of the text but it gives an opportunity to explain reasons and form opinions.
Whilst reading and sharing books, asking open questions such as ‘does that make you think of anything/anyone else?’ or ‘why do you think that character did/said that?’ allows a child to share their thoughts and develop a deeper understanding of the text.
Children always like to share their ‘favourite’: a picture, character, even a favourite page, particularly in information books. Encouraging them to expand on their choices develops their vocabulary and offers opportunities to make links to real-life experiences. Ask them why they like – or dislike – a particular character, section or page.
Try including discussion and questions about the author (and illustrator); ask your child if they would have used a different word at certain points of the text, or what they think the author meant by creating certain characters. When appropriate, try to link your topic of discussion with your child’s own life and experiences.
Asking a reader to predict what will happen later in the story opens up further opportunities for talk as well as giving valuable insights into the reasons behind their expectations.
Talking also facilitates an interest in words; collect new, tricky and interesting words in a notebook or use fridge magnets; challenge each other to use one of your newly-discovered words during the day.
Asking questions can reveal not only what children understand but what they have inferred from a text, for example how they have interpreted what the author has said. Recognising simple inferences can give an indication that a child is not only an effective reader but an efficient one too; for example when hearing or reciting the traditional poem:
Algy met a bear
A bear met Algy
The bear was bulgy
The bulge was Algy
…a child will be able to tell you that, although not explicitly stated in the text, the last line suggests poor Algy had met his fate because the bear’s bulge meant he had been eaten.
Picture books are wonderfully complex creations.The interplay between the text and the illustrations can deepen the reader’s understanding of the story, poem, information etc. as well as offer a background ‘sub-plot’ in addition to, or alongside, the text. Indeed, wordless picture books are a fantastic opportunity for developing children’s imagination: encouraging discussion and extending vocabulary. Asking a child to describe what they see in illustrations offers them further opportunity to create meaning and make connections with their own experiences.
First and foremost, don’t panic; it is not uncommon for children to ‘go off ’ reading and it may be for a number of reasons. Try to ascertain the cause without adding further pressure. If children are reluctant to read it may be because they are finding it hard work or they consider the books available to them boring. Focus on reading ‘little and often’ with high-interest texts, fun comics etc. and suggest that, for a while, you read to them.
Consider the following:
Modelling a positive approach to reading is very powerful. Encourage children to take an active interest in your local library. You will find a wealth of knowledge in a variety of forms: book recommendations, information about events such as author visits and signings, upcoming new book releases, storytelling sessions etc.
Create your own book collection/library at home (perusing second-hand book shops as well as charity shops ensures you can keep costs to a minimum). A comfy bean-bag or two will always go down well.
Suggest your child adds to (or starts their own) on-line blogs to share opinions and swap reading recommendations. This could be done in conjunction with a reading group involving friends and family.
Take an active interest in book awards; there are plenty to find on-line. If they haven’t done so yet, suggest your child’s school creates their own book award (they will, of course, be more open to the idea if you offer to help).
Explore author web-sites; these are often interactive and packed with activities, information and videos of authors reading their own work as well as possible visits to your area. Many authors try to reply to personal letters too.
We hope that all of you involved in children’s reading will find these (by no means exhaustive) resources helpful and that they encourage further discussion, argument and debate in order to promote reading for pleasure for all children.
Cremin, T., Mottram, M., Collins, F., Powell, S. and Safford, K. (2009) Teachers as Readers. UKLA/Open University. http://www.open.ac.uk/creet/main/sites/www.open.ac.uk.creet.main/files/07%20Teachers%20as%20Readers.pdf
Dombey, H. (2009) Simple View of Reading. University of Brighton. http://www.ite.org.uk/ite_readings/simple_view_reading.pdf
Elborn, S. (2015) The Handbook of Teaching Early reading: more than phonics. UKLA.
Layne, S. L. (2009) Igniting a Passion for Reading. Stenhouse Publishers.
Lockwood, M. (2008) Promoting Reading for Pleasure in the Primary School. SAGE.
Maine, F. (2015) Teaching comprehension through reading and responding to film. UKLA.
McGeown, S.P. (2013) Reading motivation and engagement in the primary classroom: theory, research and practice. UKLA.
Morrisroe, J. (2015) National Literacy Trust Hubs: Understanding the role of literacy in public health. http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0002/7394/National_Literacy_Trust_Hubs_health_and_literacy_paper_FINAL_updated.pdf
National Union of Teachers (2015) Reading for Pleasure Guide. https://www.teachers.org.uk/reading-for-pleasure
Pennac, D. illus. Blake, Q., translated Adams, S. H. (2006) The Rights of the Reader. Walker
Books. Access poster at: http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/verve/_resources/Connections_72_poster.pdf
Reading Agency (2015) Literature Review: The impact of reading for pleasure and empowerment. BOP Consulting. http://readingagency.org.uk/news/The%20Impact%20of%20Reading%20for%20Pleasure%20and%20Empowerment.pdf
Save the Children (2014) Read On. Get On. Every child in the UK reading well by 11. http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/reading#sthash.1l4oUyac.dpuf
Smith, V. (2012) Making Reading Mean. UKLA.